Student Notes: Thulāthīyāt of Imām al-Dārimī

Imran Ahmed on October 22, 2013 in Hadith Studies, Misc, Studying The Sacred Sciences

بسم العظيم والحمد لله على دين الإسلام والصلاة والسلام على خير الأنام أما بعد

Thulāthīyāt al-Imām al-Dārimī

Ḥadīth 3

Al-Shaykh Musāʿid ibn Bashīr al-Ḥusaynī al-Sūdānī al-Mālikī حفظه الله تعالى, from whom Shaykh Mohammed Daniel حفظه الله تعالى related this ḥadīth to us, is about 77 years old[1] and has high asānīd from Al-Imām ʿAbd al-Ḥayy al-Kittānī (upon whom Shaykh Musāʿid relates from in this sanad) as well as Al-Imām Muḥammad Yāsīn al-Fādānī رحمهما الله تعالى, who were both from among the Musnidūn al-ʿAṣr.

The word لبيك labbayk used by our Beloved Nabī عليه الصلاة والسلام in this riwāyah conveys الإجابة بعد الإجابة al-ijābah baʿd al-ijābah, an answer to something after having already answered. It is also used to answer something that has been personally asked for you. It means, “I am here at your beck and call oh Allāh”. The ʿulāmāʾ have commented that the reason behind our saying phrase is that we are answering the call that we have already answered, and that call is the call of Allāh جل وعلا to Sayyidunā Ibrāhīm عليه السلام which is found in Sūrah al-Ḥajj, āyah 27-28 (see also the following āyāt):

وَأَذِّن فِي النَّاسِ بِالْحَجِّ يَأْتُوكَ رِجَالًا وَعَلَىٰ كُلِّ ضَامِرٍ يَأْتِينَ مِن كُلِّ فَجٍّ عَمِيقٍ لِّيَشْهَدُوا مَنَافِعَ لَهُمْ وَيَذْكُرُوا اسْمَ اللَّهِ فِي أَيَّامٍ مَّعْلُومَاتٍ عَلَىٰ مَا رَزَقَهُم مِّن بَهِيمَةِ الْأَنْعَامِ ۖ فَكُلُوا مِنْهَا وَأَطْعِمُوا الْبَائِسَ الْفَقِيرَ

And proclaim unto mankind the pilgrimage. They will come unto thee on foot and on every lean camel; they will come from every deep ravine, That they may witness things that are of benefit to them, and mention the name of Allah on appointed days over the beast of cattle that He hath bestowed upon them. Then eat thereof and feed therewith the poor unfortunate.

Allāh has called all of us to the blessed journies of Ḥajj and ʿUmrah. Many tafāsīr support this, and say that when Sayyidunā Ibrāhīm عليه السلام completed the construction of the blessed Kaʿbah he heard this call (“And proclaim unto mankind the pilgrimage”) from Allāh[2]. He asked Allāh how the order should be conveyed to humanity, and Allāh تعالى told him that He Himself would convey it, and indeed He has done so, for He conveyed it to all of humanity[3]—and some ʿulamāʾ said it even included the babies in the wombs—and therefore we say labbayk to that call!

Ḥadīth 4

The word مهيم mahyam means ماذا or ما هذا i.e. what is your affair?

The command of the Prophet عليه الصلاة والسلام to Sayyidunā ʿAbd al-Raḥmān ibn ʿAwf رضي الله عنه was اولم awlim, which means to have a Walīmah (wedding feast). In the version of Al-Imām al-Bukhārī, he عليه الصلاة والسلام said بارك الله لك في أهلك ومالك (“May Allāh put barakah for you in your family and wealth”) before he عليه السلام commanded him رضي عنه to have a walīmah. This shows that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم would always find an excuse to make duʿāʾ for people—and his duʿāʾ is accepted. We also see from this incident that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم would find time for his Ṣaḥābah, despite his many cares (both dunyawī and dīnī) and burdens. He عليه الصلاة والسلام made everyone think that they were the most special one to him.

Another point to learn from this narration is that marriages should not be secret; rather they should be publicized and announced. This is to keep the doubts and suspicions of people away from those getting married; it cuts off the sins (e.g. ghībah, namīmah) of people at their roots. The Walīmah is a means of announcing the marriage, even if it is only a small occasion. There is no need to waste—the Walīmah should be easy, and it is disliked to make it an extravagant affair. We learn from a ḥadīth that the worst food of a Walīmah is that in which one invites only the rich and leaves out the poor—and this is a potential problem with the very upscale Walīmahs we see now.

[1] At the time of this lesson, which was delivered on August 14, 2011.

[2] Imām Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr cites a riwāyah to support this from Sayyidunā ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbbās رضي الله عنهما related by Aḥmad ibn Manīʿ and Ibn Abī Ḥātim.

[3] The wording used to describe this generally is arwāḥ, all souls i.e. all of humanity, though there is some ikhtilāf about this point.

Student Notes: Thulāthīyāt of Imām al-Dārimī (Ḥadīth 5 & 6)

Imran Ahmed on October 28, 2013 in Hadith Studies, Misc, Studying The Sacred Sciences

بسم الله العظيم والحمد لله على دين الإسلام والصلاة والسلام على خير الأنام سيدنا ومولانا محمد بن عبد الله وعلى آله وصحبه

Thulāthīyāt al-Imām Dārimī

Ḥadīth 5

This ḥadīth is ṣaḥīḥ, and was related by Imām al-Dāraquṭnī (with a small ʿillah) as well as by Imam al-Nasāʾī and Imām al-Bukhārī.[1]

It is not clear which wives of the Prophet عليه الصلاة والسلام were involved in the incident. There are various opinions on the issue and it is a long discussion. It does seem that there was more than one similar incident. However, the qawl al-rājiḥ (preferred view) is that this incident occurred in the house of Sayyidah ʿĀʾishah رضي الله عنها and that the wife who had sent the food to her house was either Sayyidah Ḥafṣah, Sayyidah Zaynab, or Sayyidah Umm Salamah رضي الله عنهن. The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم was entertaining guests.

Tharīd is considered an expensive dish, consisting of bread, meat, and a broth. It is said that the first to eat it was Sayyidunā Ibrāhīm عليه السلام. It is an easy dish to prepare, and was the favorite dish of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم. Ironically, he used it as an example to show the virtue of Sayyidah ʿĀʾishah رضي الله عنه in his statement عليه السلام: فضل عائشة على النساء كفضل الثريد على سائر الطعام (the virtue of ʿĀʾishah over women is like that of tharīd over other food)[2]. The first and second meals that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم was gifted and ate upon his arrival to Madīnah were also tharīd.

It is natural for a wife to have ghayrah (protective jealousy) for her husband. We know that Sayyidah ʿĀʾishah رضي الله عنها was not the most skilled in cooking. So, perhaps she took some time in cooking for the guests, while the other wife (with a good intention) sent over the dish of tharīd for the guests as well. However, our mother Sayyidah ʿĀʾishah did not appreciate this, and her protectiveness and jealousy for the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم overtook her—and he عليه السلام is the most deserving of jealousy!

We see in this ḥadīth that the reflex of our Beloved Nabī عليه الصلاة والسلام was not to become angry at her or scold her, despite behavior that was potentially very embarrassing to display in front of his guests. He was calm and simply picked up the plate himself and returned the food to it. He then told the guests to eat, thereby defusing the situation. This shows his ḥilm (forebearance) and raḥmah (mercy), صلى الله تعالى عليه وسلم.

The fuqāhāʾ highlight the lesson in this ḥadīth on the topic of al-qiṣāṣ (an eye for an eye, etc). If someone intentionally breaks the property of another, the owner has a right to receive a replacement from the perpetrator. Therefore, the Prophet عليه الصلاة والسلام sent the complete (swapped) platter to his wife. The ʿulamāʾ tell us it was likely that he صلى الله عليه owned both platters, but wanted to teach a lesson to his wife in a gentle way and to show the Ṣaḥābah as well.

Ḥadīth 6

In this sanad Shaykh Mohammad Daniel relates from Shaykh ʿAlī Muḥammad Tawfīq al-Naḥḥās, a very famous Egyptian qārī. This ḥadīth is related in the two Ṣaḥīḥs.

From this ḥadīth, we learn about the permissibility of accepting a fee for ḥijāmah (cupping). Other aḥādīth seem to indicate impermissibility instead, and some of the fuqahāʾ acted upon that. Imām al-Bukhārī and Imām Muslim both brought this ḥadīth in their respective collections to demonstrate permissibility.

Cupping of blood can be done in two ways: dry (healing a wound by the use of wind and air) and wet. The dry type was used mostly for women, as she already has a natural (monthly) bleeding process. Men used both dry and wet types, and had blood extracted. It is a beneficial process as reported in the Sunnah. The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said الحِجامةُ على الريقِ أمثلُ وفيه شفاءٌ وبركةٌ وتزيدُ في العقلِ وفي الحفظِ (cupping done on an empty stomach is ideal and in it there is healing and blessing and increase in intellect and in memory)[3]. Even during the miraculous journey of Al-Miʿrāj, the angels spoke about it. It is recommended to be done on Thursdays. (This is just a brief overview of the subject; there is much more to discuss on the issue.)

[1] As a side point, the muḥaddithūn said that this incident occurred before the command of ḥijāb.

[2] صحيح البخاري حديث رقم 3433 و3411 وصحيح مسلم حديث رقم 2431

[3] حديث حسن رواه ابن ماجه عن سيدنا عبد الله بن عمر رضي الله عنهما

Student Notes: Thulāthīyāt of Imām al-Dārimī (Ḥadīth 13, 14, 15)

Imran Ahmed on November 19, 2013 in Hadith Studies, Misc, Studying The Sacred Sciences

بسم الله العظيم والحمد لله على دين الإسلام الصلاة والسلام على رسوله الني الكريم وعلى آله وصحنه ومن تبعهم إلى يوم الدين, أما بعد

Ḥadīth 13

Please note that the translation in the PDF document is incomplete; the complete translation is: “Narrated Abdullah ibn Ammar al-Kalabi (May Allah be pleased with him): ‘I saw the Apostle of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم sitting on a red tinged she-camel while throwing pebbles at the Jimaar, and there was no hitting and no pushing and shoving and no shouting “move, move”.’”

The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم would often ride a camel. He did not demand to ride a horse, and often preferred to ride a donkey out of his humility عليه الصلاة والسلام. When pelting the Jamarāt he would do so without any fuss. Now, the ʿulamāʾ say that it is often better not to perform many of the mustaḥabb actions of Ḥajj (like kissing the Black Stone etc.) because it almost requires hitting, pushing, and shoving, all of which are ḥarām. Shayṭān tries to steal our good deeds. These actions severely decrease the reward of our Ḥajj.

We also see that the Prophet عليه الصلاة والسلام was very approachable, unlike some scholars of our time. We see from the ḥadīth that a Bedouin who approached him and was overtaken by awe was told by the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم to relax, as he عليه السلام reassured the Bedouin that he was not a king but rather a son of a woman from Quraysh who ate dried meat.[1] He صلى الله عليه وسلم had true tawāḍuʿ (humility).

Ḥadīth 14

Shaykh Mohammed Daniel حفظه الله تعالى narrates this ḥadīth from Al-Shaykh ʿUmar al-Ṣabbāgh of Damascus رحمه الله.

We can see here the spirit of sacrifice and preferring others that the Prophet عليه الصلاة والسلام had despite his own extreme hunger. When someone gifted him dates in this state, he gave them away without any concern for himself صلى الله عليه وسلم. The ʿulamāʾ tell us that generosity (al-karam, al-sakhāʾ) is one of the uppermost stages of courage; one has to have courage to give, because he has no fear that he himself might need this thing one day. The family of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم used to go for months without even seeing meat. He عليه الصلاة والسلام was hungrier than his Ṣaḥābah.

Ḥadīth 15

Shaykh Mohammed narrates this ḥadīth, the last and final ḥadīth in the Thulāthīyāt of Imām al-Dārimī رحمه الله through a very high isnād: that of Al-Shaykh Muḥammad al-Anṣārī ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAlī al-Aʿẓamī حفظه الله of Azamgarh, India, who is over 85 years old.

This ḥadīth narrated by Imām al-Dārimī has various ʿillahs and is a very weak narration, and therefore should not be memorized (as a general rule, ḥadīths with severe weakness should not be memorized). The narrator here, Ayfaʾ ibn ʿAbd al-Kalāʿī, is not a Ṣaḥābī but a Tābiʿī, rendering this ḥadīth mursal[2]. Despite the weakness of this ḥadīth, various parts of it are corroborated by ṣaḥīḥ ḥadīths. We have sound evidence that reading Sūrah al-Ikhlāṣ is equivalent in reward to reciting one-third of the entire Qurʾān. We know as well that the greatest āyah is Āyah al-Kursī. There are also many ḥadīths discussing the virtues of the epilogue of Sūrah al-Baqarah.

والحمد لله رب العالمين

[1] أنَّ النَّبيَّ صلَّى اللهُ عليه وسلَّم كلَّم رجلًا فأرعد فقال هوِّنْ عليك فإنِّي لستُ بملِكٍ إنَّما أنا ابنُ امرأةٍ من قريشٍ كانت تأكلُ القديدَ

[2] A ḥadīth mursal is a narration in which a Tābiʿī narrates directly from the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم. This is problematic because it is possible he narrates through another Tābiʿī (or even many of them), who could be weak or a liar. If he narrates from a Ṣaḥābī, then this is of course no problem, as all the Ṣaḥābah are trustworthy, but the possibility of his narrating from a Tābiʿī renders the ḥadīth as mursal.

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